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So the actual happening of a worldwide catastrophe within our lifespan is remote.

The major marine extinctions occurred 440 My ago (Ordovician), 370 My (Late Devonian), 245 My (Permian), 216 My (Late Triassic) and 65 My ago at the Cretaceous terminal.

303 – From the ‘Kölner Bible’ of Bartholomaeus von Unkel, around 1478.

It is, nevertheless, an interesting feature that the idea of an apocalypse – as a culmination of linear thinking – shifted its emphasis from a spiritual to a physical base, from God to iridium.

Creation and its mythological symbolism are the beginning and the apocalypse and its consequences mark the end.

The idea of an afterlife contributed to the absolute character of the division.

And I saw another angel ascending from the east, having the seal of the living God: and he cried with a loud voice to the four angels, to whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea, Saying, Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads.’ Fig. The four horses, with their colors, are a metaphor of the periods of time in the history of the world (SIMMONS GREENHILL, 1954): HORSE COLOR ERA TYPE —— albus white Adam to Flood ignorantiam —— rufus red Flood to Incarnation sin/punishment —— niger black Incarnation to Present martyrs —— pallidus pale (grey) Beatus of Gerona Beatus’ ‘Commentaries on the Apocalypse’ was a much copied work from the monastery of Liebana (Cantabria, Spain). 299 – The four apocalyptic horses from the Beatus of Fernando and Sancha, f. The horses are typified as follows: I: (grey): the end of times. A cursory examination of the material, guided by the work of KLEIN (1976), learned, that the (original) ‘Beatus’ is not a specific tetradic work. 300 – Some tetradic decorations from various Beatus-manuscripts are given here (KLEIN (1976).

295), noted a dramatic shift after the twelfth century from the private and devotional representation of this component of the Last Judgement to the public domain: ‘Its symbolic meaning was so accessible that it became the most common way of envisioning hell in the Middle Ages, particular when the audience was a popular, non-literary audience.’ Fig. Protestants to the left and the Catholics in the mouth of hell to the right. John the Divine’, where the end of times is announced by the opening of the seven seals (fig. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny: and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine.

And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast say, come and see.

And Bartholomaeus von Unkel used the subject in the Cologne Bible of 1478 (WEHMER et al., 1971; fig. John’ as markers of the pivotal point in the European cultural history.

301 – The four apocalyptic horsemen from the ‘Revelations of St.

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